Construction Started on : 6th Jan 2004
Inaugurated on : 4th Jan. 2010
Burj Khalifa is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Burj Khalifa is world’s tallest reinforced concrete tower structure that broke several records during its construction because it was for the first time a tower of this height was attempted.
The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel.
Over 45,000 m³ (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.
Concrete used in Burj Khalifa’s construction is 3,30,000 m³ (431,600 cu yd) and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 Short Tons; 38,000 Long Tons) of steel rebar.
In addition to concrete and steel, other major materials used are glass, silicone, and aluminum, which make up the outside facade of the tower.
Burj Khalifa’s Construction took 22 million man-hours.
Burj Khalifa Project Details
The architectural and structural design for the Burj Khalifa was performed by Adrian Smith and his team of ninety designers at the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM).
SOM also designed the Willis Tower (formely known as Sears Tower) in Chicago, Illinois and I world Trade Centre in New York City.
The Burj Khalifa resembles the bundled tube form of the Willis Tower, but is not a tube structure.
Details of Foundation :
The primary builder is South Korean Samsung Engineering & Construction, who also built the Taipei 101 and Petronas Twin Towers.
The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete raft, which is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles.
The design was based on extensive geotechnical and seismic studies.
The 3.7 m thick raft was constructed in four separate pours, and is made C50 grade self-consolidating concrete (SCC).
The total volume of concrete in the raft is 12,500 m³.
The 194 numbers of bored cast-in-place piles, supporting the raft are 1.5 meter in diameter and 43 meter long.
Capacity of each pile is 3000 tonnes.
The piles were made high density, low permeability C60 grade SCC concrete placed by tremie method utilizing polymer slurry.
A cathodic protection system was also installed under the mat, to minimize any detrimental effects of corrosive chemicals, which may be present in local ground water.
- Highest vertical concrete pumping (for any construction): 601 m (previous record by Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant-532 m)
- Highest occupied floor, the tallest service lift, and the world’s highest observation deck on the 12th floor.
- The world’s highest mosque and swimming pool located on the 158th and 76th floors.
High performance SCC concrete with a mix designed to provide a low-permeability and high-durability was used in the walls and columns of Burj Khalifa tower.
The C80 to C60 cube strength concrete used Portland cement, fly ash, and local aggregates.
The C80 concrete had a specified Young’s Modulus of 43,800 N/mm² at 90 days.
Two of the largest concrete pumps in the world were used to deliver concrete: to heights over 600 m in a single stage.
To reduce the cracks due to the high temperatures of Dubai (about 50°C), the concrete was poured at night, when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher, with ice added to the mix.
Special mixes of concrete were made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight, as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures.
Elevators and Lifts :
Burj Khalifa has 57 elevators and 8 escalators. The building service/fireman’s elevator has a capacity of 5,500 kg.
Burj Khalifa’s Observatory elevators are double-deck cabs with a capacity for 12-14 people per cab and it travels at 10 metres per second.
Exterior Cladding :
The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s extreme summer heat and to ensure its integrity further.
The exterior cladding comprises of reflective glazing with aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins.
Nearly 26,000 glass panels, each individually hand-cut, were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa.
Over 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower.
The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 soccer fields or 25 American football fields.