Question 11: Various methods of preparing preliminary estimate.


(i) Service Unit Method

Estimate is prepared based on service unit of various kind of structures.

Estimate = Quantity of service unit x rate per service unit

(ii) Plinth Area Method

It is the area of building at the plinth level, measured out to out of walls. While calculating the plinth area, no deductions shall be made for staircase, lift shaft, electric meter cabin, ducts for sanitary etc. unless their areas are more than 2 m². Estimated cost = Plinth area x rate per m² plinth area.

(iii) Floor Area Method

Floor area = Plinth area – area of walls

(iv) Carpet Area Method

Carpet area = Floor area – deductions Deductions as per IS 3861 are: verandah, corridor, passage, stair case, entrance hall and porch, bathroom and w/c, machine room for lift

(v) Cubical Content Method

Cubical content = plinth area x height of building

(vi) Typical Bay Method

Estimated cost =no. of bays x cost of one bay



Question 12: What is Hardness? List the various tests for hardness.


Hardness is resistance of to plastic deformation caused by indentation or abrasion. It is also defined as resistance of material to scratching or abrasion. Various tests to measure hardness are:

(i) Brinell Hardness Test  (ii) Rockwell Hardness Test  (iii) Vickers Hardness Test (iv) Knoop Hardness Test



Question 13: What is statically indeterminate structure?


If the unknown forces in members and end reactions at supports can’t be determined with the help of equations of static equilibriums only then the structure is called statically indeterminate structure.



Question 14: What is economical span of a bridge?


The span for which the total cost of bridge will be minimum is known as the economic span. With the increase in length the cost of super structure increases and cost of sub-structure decreases. So, for economical span the cost of super structure & sub-structure should be equal.



Question 15: Classify various types of bolts used in steel structures.


Bolts used in steel structures are of three types:

1) Black Bolts, 2) Turned and Fitted Bolts and 3) High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) Bolts.






Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *