Question 21: Criteria for longitudinal steel in column.


Min. Percentage of steel = 0.8% of Ag

Max. Percentage of steel = 6% of Ag

Min. Diameter of Bar = 12 mm

Min. no. of bars = 4 (rect. column)

Min. no. of bars =6 (circular column)



Question 22: What is a BOT Project? Give an example of any BOT project.


Build: A private participants agrees with a government to invest in a public infrastructure project. They have to raise the fund to construct project.

Operate: the project developers then own, maintains and manages the facility over a fixed term during which it is allowed to charge facility users appropriate tolls, fees, rentals which are sufficient to enable the contractor to recover it’s operating and maintenance expenses and its investment in project plus a reasonable rate of return.

Transfer: after completing the concession period, project developers transfer ownership and operation of the facility to government.


1.  Mumbai-Pune Expressway    2.  Delhi-Noida Bridge   3.  Vadodara – Halol Road         4.  Bangalore-Mysore Expressway   5.  Ahmedabad-Vadodara Expressway



Question 23: What is Work Breakdown Structure?


The functional elements of a project and their inter-relationship are determined by a technique known as work breakdown structure (WBS). It can be broadly categorized in to following five levels.

(i) Sub-project level

(ii) Task level

(iii) Work-package level

(iv) Activity level

(v) Operations level



Question 24: Enlist different types of soil.


·       Alluvial soil – River deposited soil

·       Aeolian Soil – Wind transported soil

·       Bentonite soil – Forms from chemically weathered volcanic ash

·       Colluvial soil – Gravity deposited soil

·       Drift – Glacier transported soil

·       Lacustrine soil – Lake deposited soil

·       Loess – Uniformly graded windblown silt, low bearing capacity, high permeability

·       Marl – Fine graded calcium carbonated soil of marine origin, formed due to decomposition of bones and dead cell mass of aquatic life

·       Marine Soil – Marine deposited soil

·       Till – Deposit made by melting of ice

·       Marl – Fine graded calcium carbonated soil of marine origin, formed due to decomposition of bones and dead cell mass of aquatic life

·       Tuff – fine grained & formed due to weathering of volcanic ash transported by wind or water.

·       Loam – Mixture of clay, silt and sand in definite proportion (may contain organic matter also)

·       Laterite – residual soil which is formed due to leaching action

·       Peat – Highly organic soil

·       Muck – mixture of fine soil particles highly decomposed organic matter

·       Gumbo – highly plastic black coloured sticky soil which consists of excess of montmorillonite

·       Clay – Particle size < 0.002 mm

·       Silt – Particle size 0.002-0.075 mm

·       Sand  – Particle size 0.075 -4.75 mm

·       Gravel – Particle size 4.75-80 mm

·       Cobble –  Particle size 80 mm-300 mm

·       Boulder –  Particle size> 300 mm



Question 25: What is difference between a Plan and a map?


Plan and map are graphical representation to some scale. Plan is large scale and map is small scale. A large scale map only shows a small area, but it shows it in great detail. A map depicting a large area, such as an entire country, is considered a small scale map. A small scale map shows more territory, but it is less detailed. e.g. map of a country and plan for a typical building.






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