What is a retaining wall?
A Retaining wall is a structure used to retain Earth or other materials and to maintain ground surface at different elevations on either side of it.
The main components of a retaining wall are :
Difference between cantilever retaining wall and counterfort retaining wall :
CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL
COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL
· It consists of Stem, Heel slab, Toe slab and Shear key
It consists of stem, Toe slab, Heel slab and Counterforts
· Stability is maintained by weight of retaining wall and weight of earth on heel slab.
The vertical stem as well as heel slab act as continuous slab because of provision of counterforts.
· It resists the horizontal Earth pressure as well as vertical pressure by way of bending of various components acting as cantilever.
Counterfort reduces bending moment in stem and heel slab by providing support to them.
· It is used when the height of wall is up to 6 m.
It is used when the height of wall is above 6 m.
Figure shows the deflection profile of a cantilever retaining wall
From the figure it is seen that the tension face of stem is near to the back fill, and the main reinforcement should be provided on tension face in vertical direction in stem.
For heel slab the top portion acts as tension face hence main reinforcement is provided on top face of Heel. For Toe slab bottom portion of the toe slab is the tension face so main reinforcement is provided at bottom in Toe slab.
These are the simple steps for the design of a cantilever retaining wall when the following data has been provided in the question.
GIVEN DATA : HEIGHT , SBC OF SOIL, ø , µ , Unit weight of soil(