1) Instrumental errors:
These errors are due to faulty adjustments or imperfections of the instruments such as chain or tape may be too long or too short etc.
Error = Measured Distance – Actual Distance
If the chain is too long, the measured distance will be less. The error will, therefore, be negative and the correction is positive.
If the chain is too short, the measured distance will be more, the error will be positive and the correction will be negative.
2) Natural errors:
These errors arise due to variations in the phenomenon of nature such as temperature etc.
If the chain is used at a temperature higher than the temperature at which it was calibrated, Error is Negative.
If the chain is used at a temperature lower than the temperature at which it was calibrated, Error is Positive.
3) Compensating Errors:
The compensating errors are those which occur in either direction and tend to compensate at the end. These errors do not affect the survey work seriously.
The Compensating Error that occurs in chaining is proportional to √L where L is the length of line.
4) Cumulative Errors:
The cumulative errors are those which occur in one direction only and go on accumulating. These errors have a serious effect on the accuracy of survey work.
The Cumulative Error that occurs in chaining are proportional to L where L is the length of line.