FUNCTIONS or PHASES OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
The functions of Construction Management are as follows :
1) Planning and Scheduling :
Planning involves formulation of a number of alternative realistic work plans for achieving specified objectives and finally selecting a plan which is best suited from the standpoint of available resources and constraints imposed upon the project.
Planning is the administrative process which translates the policy into a method of achieving the objectives.
It lays down,
- How a project will be carried out ?
- What materials will be used ?
- What equipment and machineries will be utilized ?
- What men and staff will be employed ?
Thus, planning essentially covers the aspects of
- What to do ? and
- How to do ?
Scheduling is the fitting of the final work plan to a time scale. It shows the duration and order of various construction activities. It deals with the aspect of
When to do ?
The project plan comprises :
- Time plan
- Resources plan
- Plan for controlling project.
It also includes :
- Schedules of design and drawing preparation
- Work quantities Progress of work planned
- Resources allocations
- Budged costs
- Cashflow estimates, etc.
Organizing is concerned with division of the total construction work into manageable sections and systematically arranging various operations by delegating specific tasks to individuals.
The relationship between various personnel are established and the organizational structure of the project is depicted by a simple flow chart.
The organization structure should be kept as simple and balanced as possible.
A man should have only one boss immediately above him to whom he knows.
Any significant member of our organization should have upto five and never more than seven sub-ordinates.
3) Staffing :
Organizing involves the division of the project work into sections and staffing is the provision of people to fill the positions so created.
The staffing functions are :
- Recruiting the right people
- Arranging staff training courses
- Carrying out proper staff assessment
4) Directing :
The directing function in concerned with training sub-ordinates to carry out assigned tasks, supervising their work and guiding their efforts.
The essence of directing lies in the ability to motivate people individually and as groups to utilize their creative efforts in achieving specified objectives.
5) Controlling :
Controlling is necessary for ensuring effective and efficient working. It involves a constant review of the work plan to check on actual achievements and to discover and rectify deviations through appropriate corrective measures.
The essential steps in management control are :
- Measurement of actual performance in terms of progress, quality and cost incurred.
- Comparison of actual and planned performance.
- Analysis of short fall in performance when it occurs and identification and implementation of suitable remedial measures.
- Quick and accurate flow of information is a vital aspect of the controlling function.
6) Co-ordinating :
This is a process where the framework or structure of the organization is made to operate smoothly with the flow of information, decisions and results in every direction.
In a large organization and in a large complicated project, it is necessary to bring together and co-ordinate the work of various departments and sections.
This requires an efficient system of communication so that each department and section is aware of its role and the assistance to be expected from others.
Regular meetings of departmental/section heads with top management are fundamental to proper co-ordination, so that plans, problems and remedies are discussed for determining the best solution.