Irrigation is defined as the artificial application of water to land for the purpose of raising crops. 

A crop requires a certain amount of water at some fixed time interval throughout its period of growth. 

If the water requirement of the crop is met by natural rainfall during the period of growth, there is no need of irrigation. 

In a tropical country like India, where the natural rainfall occurs mainly during the monsoon season from June to September, irrigation is essential for the proper growth of plants.

Irrigation Engineering is the science dealing with planning, designing, construction, operate and maintenance of various irrigation works.

It deals with the harnessing of various natural water resources for irrigation and all aspects and problems starting from the watershed to the agricultural fields.

It includes,

  1. Construction of dams and reservoirs
  2. Construction of canal system 
  3. Construction of headworks
  4. Study and design of works in connection with river control
  5. Drainage of waterlogged area
  6. Generation of hydroelectric power, etc.

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