FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF DEMAND
The annual average demand considerably varies from different loss or cities.
This figure generally ranges between 100 – 180 lpcd for Indias conditions.
Such variation depends upon a number of factors which are :
1) Size and type of community :
The per capita demand for dig cities is generally large as compared to that for smaller town.
This is because of the fact that in big cities, huge quantities water are required to maintain clean and healthy environment.
Commercial and industrial activities are also more in big cities.
2) Standard of living :
Higher the standard of living, higher the demand.
More water will be consumo in air conditioners bath tubs etc which are the symbols of higher living standard.
3) Climatic condition :
At hotter and dry places, the consumption of water is generally more because more of bathing, cleaning air conditioning, sprinkling in Inwns, garden roof etc. are involved.
Similarly in extremely cold countries more water may be consumed because the people may keep their taps open to avoid freezing pipes, and there may be more leakage from pipe joints since the metal contracts at lower temperature.
4) Quality of water :
If the quality of water supplied is good higher will be the consumption as people will not use any alternative source like private bore etc.
5) Pressure in the supply :
Higher pressure results in increased consumption of water as people living in higher storey will also get water freely.
Also as pressure is higher more will be wastage of water and more will be the losses from the fittings.
6) Development of sewerage facilities :
The water consumption will be more if the city is provided with flush system and shall be less if the old conservation system of latrines is adopted.
7) Metering of water :
Use of water decreases if the supplies are metered. If the water tax are based upon the amount of water used, the consumption would decrease.
8) Cost of water :
Higher is the cost, lesser will be the consumption.
9) System of water supply:
Water supply may be continuous (24 hours) or intermittent. Generally, intermittent supply will reduce rate of demand.
10) Industrial and commercial activities:
More of these activites will result in increase in the water consumption.