PHASES OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT :
The following are the stages involved in any construction project :
1. Briefing stage
2. Designing stage
3. Tendering stage
4. Construction stage
5. Commissioning stage
1) Briefing stage :
This stage is also called the Report stage. It is the stage where ideas originated by individuals are studied with regard to cost and benefits so as to establish the economic viability or social utility of a project.
The purpose of the briefing stage is to enable the client / owner to specify project functions and permissible costs so that engineers, architects and other members of the construction team can correctly interpret the owner’s wishes and provide a likely estimate of costs. It also leads to an objective on the scope and feasibility of the project. A feasibility report is prepared during this stage.
Various activities involved in the briefing stage are :
- To appoint a project steering committee, if necessary.
- To appoint a project manager who will have a continuing responsibility to the client through out the construction process.
- To carry out technical and non-technical investigations so that alternative proposals may be given due consideration.
- To study the various alternatives and identify the most feasible one.
- To prepare the project report which is the outcome of the first stage (i.e. briefing stage).
Feasibility report :
A feasibility report is prepared to present an in-depth techno-economic analysis carried out on the project. It contains results of technical as well as economic evaluation of the project so that the owner can take investment decisions and the project can be properly planned and implemented. The feasibility report is prepared during the briefing stage or report stage of the project.
The viability of any project mainly depends on the following analysis :
(i) Technical analysis
(ii) Economic analysis
(iii) Financial analysis
(iv) Ecological analysis
(i) Technical analysis :
The technical part of the feasibility study identifies alternative methods of and the selection of the best available technology.
It includes :
- Selection of suitable site
- Selection of appropriate method of construction.
- Availability of various resources or raw materials.
- Specifications of raw materials Selection of construction equipments
(ii) Economic analysis :
Economic analysis checks the economic viability of the project. Sometimes, a project is technically feasible but economically unviable.
Various methods of economic feasibility assessment are :
- Pay back period method
- Return on investment method
- Benefit cost ratio method
(iii) Financial analysis :
The financial analysis of a feasibility study includes :
a) Estimation of capital cost requirement :
All costs incurred during the completion of a project will be termed as capital cost.
- Engineering and project management cost
- Engineering fee
- Supervision during construction
- Construction equipment
- Enabling works
- Working cost
- Operating cost, etc.
b) Sources of financing :
The sources of financing may be divided into two groups internal sources and external sources. For small projects, internal sources are used, while for large projects, external sources are used.
(iv) Ecological analysis :
Ecological analysis i.e. environmental impact assessment is particularly necessary for major projects which have significant ecological implications, like.
- Power plants
- Major irrigation projects
- Chemical industries
- Drug industries
- Leather processing industries, etc.
- The preparation of working drawings
- Arrangements for inviting traders
- Soil investigation
- Topographic investigation
- Materials surveys
- Market surveys, etc.
- To invite tenders from the contractors for the construction work and to award the contract.
- Pre-qualification of contractors involves an investigation of the potential of contractor’s financial managerial and physical resources, contractor’s experience of handling similar projects, etc.
- To prepare contract documents, to be signed by the client and the contractor. The contract documents should be prepared with extreme care and by experienced persons because the contract forms the basis on which the project management team exercises control of the project during the construction phase.
- Holding a pre-bid conference and providing the necessary information.
- Negotiating contract price with qualified contractor.
- Reviewing documents submitted by contractor e.g. work schedules, manpower qualifications, equipments, etc.
- Clarifying ambiguities in the contract documents.
- Construction schedule
- Manpower schedule material delivery schedule plant and equipment schedule
- Supply of materials and equipment
- Supervision for quality control
- Co-ordination among sub-contractors Supervision for quality control
- Supply of necessary drawings
- To keep various records of actual work.
- To inspect the construction work thoroughly and have any defects rectified.
- To prepare operating instructions and maintenance manuals.
- To carry out tests for performance such as water tightness, strength, etc.